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Modha: Network Visualization

The network of connections is a key piece of the Dynamic Global Workspace. This is a fantastic visualization of it! It is for a macaque monkey, but, only a few details separate our brains from theirs.

PNAS July 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
vol. 107 no. 30 > Dharmendra S. Modha, 13485–13490, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1008054107

Network architecture of the long-distance pathways in the macaque brain

Dharmendra S. Modha and Raghavendra Singh

Start of Abstract

Understanding the network structure of white matter communication pathways is essential for unraveling the mysteries of the brain's function, organization, and evolution. To this end, we derive a unique network incorporating 410 anatomical tracing studies . . . network consists of 383 hierarchically organized regions spanning cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia; models the presence of 6,602 directed long-distance connections; . .

The Supplemental Material!! is especially rich in visualizations of various types. The images shown here have all of the hierarchies with a bit of a tight fit. There are many images showing the individual hierarchies.

The images showing the "bundling" of the fibers shows what the graph would look like with no bundling and with two intermediate steps. In the image to the left - Figure 1 from the paper - you can see all of the possible connections, but, the fibers that run parallel are "bundled" to reduce clutter.

One thing the supplementary material does not have is a vector version of Figure 1. Figure S1. is a vector version.

And the second image Figure S5. is is the whole hierarchy.

image Modha2010sFigS1prevNetwork1800.jpg
Fig. S1 Largest Previous Network. (PDF)
image Modha2010sFigS6Hierarchy1800.jpg
Fig. S6 Hierarchy (PDF)

383 Brain Regions

The CoCoMac data base seems to be defunct, but, Kotter 2005 gives context. For example, GM-Definition is the General Map, as in the acronym map, general map and regional map. BTW, below is a similar image for humans by Andrei Irimia Circular representation of human cortical. . . image Irimia2012x300.jpg

1 Br According to GM-Definition
2 DiE Diencephalon according to GM-Definition alamus
3 Hyp Hypothalamus
4 Tha Thalamus
5 AN Anterior nuclei of the thalamus
6 LD#1 Laterodorsal nucleus (thalamus)
7 AV Nucleus anterior ventralis thalami
8 AM#1 Nucleus anterior medialis thalami
9 AD#1 Nucleus anterior dorsalis thalami
10 ML Midline nuclei of the thalamus
11 Re Nucleus reuniens thalami
12 PT#2 Nucleus parataenialis thalami
13 PAa Nucleus paraventricularis thalami, pars anterior
14 C#4 Nucleus centralis thalami
15 Clc Nucleus centralis latocellularis thalami
16 Cim Nucleus centralis intermedialis thalami
17 Cif Nucleus centralis inferior thalami
18 Cdc Nucleus centralis densocellularis thalami
19 GN Metathalamus (Geniculate Nucleii)
20 MG Corpus geniculatum mediale
21 LGN dorsal Lateral geniculate nucleus
22 IL#2 Intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus
23 Pf#2 Nucleus parafascicularis thalami
24 Pcn Nucleus paracentralis thalami
25 CM#2 nucleus centrum medianum (thalamus)
26 Cl#2 Nucleus centralis lateralis thalami
27 Csl Nucleus centralis superior lateralis thalami
28 Cs#2 Nucleus centralis superior thalami
29 MI#1 Massa intermedia
30 PN Posterior Nucleii of Thalamus
31 SG Nucleus suprageniculatus thalami
32 Li Nucleus limitans thalami
33 Ret Nucleus reticularis thalami
34 Pul#1 Nucleus pulvinaris thalami
35 PI#3 Nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami
36 PIl-s Nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami, shell of the lateral subdivision
37 PIp Nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami, posterior subdivision
38 PIm Nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami, pars medialis
39 PIl Nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami, lateral subdivision
40 PIc Nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami, central subdivision
41 PM#3 Nucleus pulvinaris medialis thalami
42 PMm Nucleus pulvinaris medialis thalami, medial division
43 PMl Nucleus pulvinaris medialis thalami, lateral division
44 Pul.o Nucleus pulvinaris oralis thalami
45 PL#3 Nucleus pulvinaris lateralis thalami
46 PLa#1 Nucleus pulvinaris lateralis thalami pars alpha
47 PLd Nucleus pulvinaris lateralis thalami, dorsal division
48 PLvl Nucleus pulvinaris lateralis thalami pars ventrolateralis
49 PLvm Nucleus pulvinaris lateralis thalami pars ventromedialis
50 MD Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami
51 MDdc Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars densocellularis
52 MDcd Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars caudodorsalis
53 MDl Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars lateralis
54 MDpc Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars parvocellularis
55 MDmf Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars multiformis
56 MDmc Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars magnocellularis
57 MDpm Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars paramediana
58 MDfi Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami, pars fibrosa
59 VN Ventolateral Nucleii of Thalamus
60 X Area X (thalamus)
61 VP#2 Nucleus ventralis posterior
62 VPS Ventroposterior superior nucleus thalami
63 VPI Nucleus ventralis posterior inferior thalami
64 VPM Nucleus ventralis posterior medialis thalami
65 VPL Ventral posterior lateral nucleus (thalamus)
66 VPLo Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis thalami, pars oralis
67 VPLc Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis thalami, pars caudalis
68 VL ventral lateral nucleus (thalamus)
69 VLm Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami, pars medialis
70 VLps Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami, pars postrema
71 VLo Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami, pars oralis
72 VLc Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami, pars caudalis
73 VA ventral anterior nucleus (thalamus)
74 VApc Nucleus ventralis anterior thalami, pars parvocellularis
75 VAdc Nucleus ventralis anterior thalami, pars densocellularis
76 VAmc Nucleus ventralis anterior thalami, pars magnocellularis
77 Cx GM-CerebralCortex
78 FL#2 FrontalLobe according to GM-Definition
79 belt_sm belt line of the sensorymotor system according to CP99
80 Pfc Prefrontal Cortex
81 PFCorb Orbital prefrontal cortex
82 14 Orbitofrontal area 14
83 14O Orbital part of area 14
84 14r Rostral area 14
85 OFap Orbitofrontal cortex, agranular periallocortical
86 OFO Orbitofrontal opercular area
87 ProM#2 Pro motor area
88 Gu Gustatory cortex
89 13 Orbitofrontal area 13
90 13L Orbitofrontal area 13, lateral part
91 13M Orbitofrontal area 13, medial part
92 13a Orbitofrontal area 13a
93 32 Area 32
94 FD#1 Prefrontal area FD
95 10 Area 10
96 10m Medial area 10
97 10v Ventral area 10
98 10d Dorsal area 10
99 10o Orbital area 10
100 12 Area 12
101 12o Orbital area 12
102 12m Medial area 12
103 47/12 Prefrontal area 47/12
104 12r Rostral area 12
105 12l Lateral area 12
106 11 Area 11
107 11l Lateral area 11
108 11m Medial area 11
109 9 Area 9
110 L9 Lateral area 9
111 M9 Medial area 9
112 D9 dorsal area 9
113 46 Cortical area 46
114 46v Ventral area 46
115 46d Dorsal area 46
116 PS Principal Sulcus
117 46f Area 46 (fundus of the principal sulcus)
118 46vr Area 46 (ventral rim of the principal sulcus)
119 46dr Area 46 (dorsal rim of the principal sulcus)
120 9/46 Cortical area 9/46
121 9/46v Cortical area 9/46v
122 9/46d Cortical area 9/46d
123 8 Area 8
124 FEF Frontal eye field
125 45 Cortical area 45
126 45A Cortical area 45A
127 45B Cortical area 45B
128 8A Area 8A
129 8Ad Dorsal portion of area 8A
130 8Ac Caudal area 8A
131 8B Area 8B
132 6#1 Area 6
133 6V Area 6 (ventral part)
134 F5 Agranular frontal area 5 (= rostral ventrolateral premotor area)
135 PrCO Precentral opercular area
136 4c Motor area 4c
137 6Vb Premotor area 6Vb
138 6Va Premotor area 6Va
139 F4 Agranular frontal area 4 (= caudal ventrolateral premotor area)
140 44 Cortical area 44
141 6b-beta Premotor area 6b-beta
142 6D Premotor area 6 (dorsal part)
143 F7 Agranular frontal area 7 (= rostral dorsolateral premotor area)
144 F2 Agranular frontal area 2 (= caudal dorsolateral premotor area)
145 6M Medial premotor area 6M
146 F3 Agranular frontal area 3 (= SMA-proper)
147 SMAr SMA - rostral part
148 SMAc SMA - caudal part
149 M2-HL Supplementary motor cortex M2, hindlimb area
150 M2-FL Supplementary motor cortex M2, forelimb area
151 F6 Agranular frontal area 6 (= pre-SMA)
152 M1 Primary motor area
153 M1-FL Primary motor cortex M1, forelimb area
154 MI-of orofacial representation in MI
155 4b Motor area 4b
156 4a Motor area 4a
157 MI-body body representation of MI as defined in KSI03
158 M1-HL Primary motor cortex M1, hindlimb area
159 Pl#6 ParietalLobe according to GM-Definition
160 S1 Primary somatosensory cortex
161 PC#1 Primary sensory area PC
162 1#1 Area 1
163 2#1 Area 2
164 3#1 Area 3
165 3b Postcentral area 3b
166 3a Postcentral area 3a
167 S2 Secondary somatosensory cortex
168 SII-f face representation in SII as defined in DLRPK03
169 CMA#2 Cortical masticatory area
170 belt_s belt line of the sensory system according to CP99
171 PR#4 rostroventral parietal area as defined in DLRPK03
172 7#1 Area 7
173 PFop Rostral parietal operculum
174 PP Posterior parietal area
175 PGop Caudal parietal operculum ior
176 IPL Parietal Lobule
177 7a Area 7a
178 PG#1 Caudal inferior parietal lobule
179 Opt Occipitoparietal area
180 7b Area 7b
181 PFG#1 Midpart of the inferior parietal lobule
182 PF#1 Rostral inferior parietal lobule
183 PCip Cortex of the intraparietal sulcus
184 LIP Lateral intraparietal area
185 LIPe Lateral intraparietal area (external part)
186 LIPi Lateral intraparietal area (internal part)
187 VIP Ventral intraparietal area
188 PIP#1 Posterior intraparietal area
189 AIP Anterior intraparietal area
190 MIP Medial intraparietal area
191 PCd#2 Dorsal parietal cortex (= SPL and precuneus)
192 SPL Superior Parietal Lobule
193 PEm Rostral superior parietal lobule
194 5_Foot Receptive field for the foot in Area5
195 PEc#1 Caudal and medial superior parietal lobule
196 PCm Medial parietal cortex (= Precuneus)
197 PGm Parietal area PG, medial part
198 31 Area 31
199 PECg Parietal area PE (cingulate part)
200 CgG#2 Cingulate Gyrus according to GM-Definition
201 24 Anterior cingulate area 24
202 24c Area 24c (rostral part of the cingulate sulcus)
203 24d Area 24d (rostral part of the cingulate sulcus)
204 24b Area 24b
205 24a Area 24a
206 23 Area 23
207 23c Area 23c
208 23b Area 23b
209 TSA Transitional sensory area
210 23a Area 23a
211 26 Area 26
212 29 Area 29
213 CML Caudomedial lobule
214 29d Area 29d
215 29a-c Cortical area 29a-c
216 30 Retrosplenial area 30
217 25 Area 25
218 Insula Insula
219 Ig#1 Granular insular cortex
220 Ri#1 Retroinsular area
221 IPro Insular proisocortex
222 Pi#1 Parainsular field/cortex
223 IA#1 Anterior insula
224 Idg Dysgranular insular cortex
225 Ia#2 Agranular insula
226 Ial Lateral agranular insular cortex
227 Iam Medial agranular insular cortex
228 Iapm Posteromedial agranular insular cortex
229 Iai Intermediate agranula insular cortex
230 TL#2 Temporal Lobe according to GM-Definition
231 TCv Ventral Temporal Cortex
232 TF Temporal area TF
233 TFM Temporal area TF (medial part)
234 TFL Temporal area TF (lateral part)
235 Per#1 Perirhinal cortex
236 35 Area 35
237 36 Area 36
238 36c Caudal part of area 36
239 36r Rostral part of area 36
240 TG Temporopolar area TG
241 TPPro Temporal proisocortex
242 TPag Agranular area of temporal polar cortex
243 TPg Granular area of temporal polar cortex
244 TPproD Dysgranular Temporopolar Cortex
245 TPdgv Ventral dysgranular area of temporal polar cortex
246 TPdgd Dorsal dysgranular area of temporal polar cortex
247 36p Cortical area 36p
248 PHC Parahippocampal cortex
249 ENT Entorhinal cortex
250 EL Lateral field of entorhinal cortex
251 ELr Lateral field (rostral part) of entorhinal cortex
252 ELc Lateral field (caudal part) of entorhinal cortex
253 EI mediate field of entorhinal cortex
254 ER#1 Rostral field of entorhinal cortex
255 28m medial entorhinal cortex-III 28a ]
256 EO Olfactory field of entorhinal cortex
257 ECL Caudal limiting field of entorhinal cortex
258 EC#2 Caudal field of entorhinal cortex
259 S#1 Subiculum
260 Su#2 Subiculum, uncal portion
261 Sb Subiculum, body portion
262 Pros. prosubiculum
263 PaS Parasubiculum
264 TH Temporal area TH
265 PrS Presubiculum
266 Hip Hippocampus
267 CA1 CA1 subfield of Ammon‘s horn
268 DG dentate gyrus
269 CA3 CA3 subfield of Ammons horn
270 STG superior temporal gyrus
271 STP#2 Supratemporal plane
272 A1 Primary auditory cortex
273 STPg Supratemporal cortex, granular
274 A2 Secondary auditory cortex
275 Pa#2 Postauditory field
276 ProK auditory prokoniocortex
277 paAc Caudal auditory parakoniocortex
278 paAlt Lateral auditory parakoniocortex
279 L#1 Lateral auditory field
280 CL#4 cudal lateral auditory (belt)
281 AL#4 anterior lateral auditory belt
282 TA Temporal area TA
283 Ts Area temporalis superior
284 ST3 Superior temporal area 3
285 ST2 Superior temporal area 2
286 ST1 Superior temporal area 1
287 Tpt Temporoparietal cortex
288 TE Inferotemporal area TE
289 20 Area 20
290 AITv Anterior inferotemporal area (ventral)
291 CIT Central inferotemporal area
292 CITd Central inferotemporal area (dorsal)
293 CITv Central inferotemporal area (ventral)
294 21 Area 21
295 AITd Anterior inferotemporal area (dorsal)
296 TEa#3 anterior part of area TE
297 TEm Cortical area TEm
298 PIT Posterior inferotemporal area
299 PITd Posterior inferotemporal area (dorsal)
300 PITv Posterior inferotemporal area (ventral)
301 STS Superior temporal sulcus
302 STSd Superior temporal sulcus, dorsal
303 TPO Temporal parietooccipital associated area in the STS
304 TPOc Temporoparietal asscociated area (caudal part)
305 TPOi Temporoparietal associated area (intermediate part)
306 TPOr Temporoparietal associated area (rostral part)
307 TAa Temporal area TAa
308 STSf Superior temporal sulcus, fundus
309 PGa Cortical area PGa
310 IPa Intraparietal sulcus associated area in the STS
311 OAa Cortical area OAa
312 MT Middle temporal area
313 MTp Peripheral part of area MT
314 FST Floor of superior temporal sulcus
315 MST Medial superior temporal area
316 MSTp Medial superior temporal area (posterior)
317 MSTd Medial superior temporal area (dorsal)
318 OC#2 OccipitalLobe according to GM-Definition
319 VAC Visual anterior cortex
320 OA Extrastriate area OA
321 V3A Visual area 3A
322 V3 Visual area 3
323 V3d Dorsal visual area 3
324 V3v Ventral visual area 3
325 V4 Visual area 4
326 V4t V4 transitional area
327 V4d Visual area 4 (dorsal part)
328 DLr dorsolateral visual cortex, rostral part
329 DLc dorsolateral visual cortex, caudal part
330 V4v Visual area 4 (ventral part)
331 VPP Ventral posterior parietal area
332 DI#1 intermediate visual field
333 PO#4 medial visual association area
334 V6A Visual area V6A
335 V6 Visual area 6
336 DP Dorsal prelunate gyrus
337 VOT Ventral occipitotemporal area
338 V1 Visual area 1
339 ProSt Prostriate cortex
340 V2 Visual area 2
341 BG Basal Ganglia according to GM-Definition
342 Amyg Amygdala
343 B#2 basal amygdaloid nucleus
344 Bla Basolateral nucleus of amygdala
345 Abpc Accessory basal amygdaloid nucleus, parvicellular part
346 Bi Basal amygdaloid nucleus, intermediate part
347 ABd Accessory basal amygdaloid nucleus, dorsal division
348 Bvl Basal amygdaloid nucleus, ventral lateral division
349 ABv Accessory basal amygdaloid nucleus, ventral division
350 MB Medial basal nucleus of the amygdala
351 ABvm Accessor basal nucleus (amygdala), ventromedial division
352 ABmg accessory basal nucleus (amygdala), magnocellular subdivision
353 A anterior amygdaloid area
354 I#2 Intercalated amygdaloid nucleus
355 ME#1 Medial nucleus of the amygdala
356 CE#1 central nucleus of the amygdala
357 PAC#1 periamygdaloid cortex
358 AHA amygdalohippocampal area
359 PAC2 Periamygdaloid cortex 2
360 Co cortical nucleus (amygdala)
361 COp cortical nucleus, posterior division
362 NLOT Nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract
363 COa cortical nucleus, anterior division
364 L#2 lateral nucleus, amygdala
365 Ldm Lateral amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial region
366 Ldi Lateral nucleus (amygdala), dorsal intermediate division
367 Ld#2 Lateral nucleus (amygdala), dorsal division
368 Lv Lateral nucleus (amygdala), ventral division
369 Lvl lateral nucleus (amygdala), ventrolateral subdivision
370 SN substantia nigra
371 SI#2 substantia innominata
372 Sub.Th Nucleus subthalamic
373 GPe Globus pallidus, external part
374 STR striatus
375 Cd Nucleus caudatus
376 Cd_t Nucleus caudatus; tail
377 Cd_g Nucleus caudatus; genu
378 Pu Putamen
379 Pu_r Putamen; rostral
380 Pu_c Putamen; caudal
381 Clau Claustrum
382 MB#2 Mid Brain
383 OFC Olfactory Complex
2014.06.22 jch